Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. The Tibetan script is an abugida of Indic origin used to write certain Tibetic languages , including Tibetan , Dzongkha , Sikkimese , Ladakhi and sometimes Balti. It has also been used for some non-Tibetic languages in close cultural contact with Tibet, such as Thakali. The script is closely linked to a broad ethnic Tibetan identity, spanning across areas in India , Nepal , Bhutan and Tibet. The creation of the Tibetan alphabet is attributed to Thonmi Sambhota of the mid-7th century. Tradition holds that Thonmi Sambhota, a minister of Songtsen Gampo in 7th century, was sent to India to study the art of writing, and upon his return introduced the alphabet.
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Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. The Tibetan script is an abugida of Indic origin used to write certain Tibetic languages , including Tibetan , Dzongkha , Sikkimese , Ladakhi and sometimes Balti. It has also been used for some non-Tibetic languages in close cultural contact with Tibet, such as Thakali. The script is closely linked to a broad ethnic Tibetan identity, spanning across areas in India , Nepal , Bhutan and Tibet. The creation of the Tibetan alphabet is attributed to Thonmi Sambhota of the mid-7th century.
Tradition holds that Thonmi Sambhota, a minister of Songtsen Gampo in 7th century, was sent to India to study the art of writing, and upon his return introduced the alphabet. The form of the letters is based on an Indic alphabet of that period.
Three orthographic standardisations were developed. The most important, an official orthography aimed to facilitate the translation of Buddhist scriptures , emerged during the early 9th century. Standard orthography has not altered since then, while the spoken language has changed by, for example, losing complex consonant clusters. As a result, in all modern Tibetan dialects, in particular in the Standard Tibetan of Lhasa , there is a great divergence between current spelling which still reflects the 9th-century spoken Tibetan and current pronunciation.
This divergence is the basis of an argument in favour of spelling reform , to write Tibetan as it is pronounced , for example, writing Kagyu instead of Bka'-rgyud. In contrast, the pronunciation of the Balti , Ladakhi and Burig languages adheres more closely to the original spelling.
New research and writings suggest that there were Tibetan script, prior to Songtsen Gampo and Thonmi Sambhota. The Tunhong manuscripts dunhuang manuscript are key evidence for this hypothesis. In the Tibetan script, the syllables are written from left to right. Spaces are not used to divide words. The Tibetan alphabet has thirty basic letters, sometimes known as "radicals", for consonants.
Although some Tibetan dialects are tonal , the language had no tone at the time of the script's invention, and there are no dedicated symbols for tone. However, since tones developed from segmental features they can usually be correctly predicted by the archaic spelling of Tibetan words. The unique aspect of the Tibetan script is that the consonants can be written either as radicals, or they can be written in other forms, such as subscript and superscript forming consonant clusters.
Besides being written as subscripts and superscripts, some consonants can also be placed in prescript, postscript, or post-postscript positions. There is no distinction between long and short vowels in written Tibetan, except in loanwords , especially transcribed from the Sanskrit. Romanization and transliteration of the Tibetan script is the representation of the Tibetan script in the Latin script. There are various ways of Romanization and transliteration systems created in recent years, but failed to represent the true phonetic sound.
The layout has been available in Linux since September In Ubuntu The layout applies the similar layout as in Microsoft Windows. The Dzongkha keyboard layout scheme is designed as a simple means for inputting Dzongkha text on computers. Since the arrangement of keys essentially follows the usual order of the Dzongkha and Tibetan alphabet, the layout can be quickly learned by anyone familiar with this alphabet.
Subjoined combining consonants are entered using the Shift key. However, in , in version 1. The Tibetan script was re-added in July, with the release of version 2.
It includes letters, digits and various punctuation marks and special symbols used in religious texts:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tibetan Type Abugida. Unicode range. History of the alphabet. BCE Hieratic 32 c. BCE Demotic 7 c. BCE Meroitic 3 c. BCE Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE Ugaritic 15 c. BCE Phoenician 12 c. BCE Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE Samaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE Tifinagh Paleohispanic semi-syllabic 7 c.
BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Brahmic family see E. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari 10 c. CE Canadian syllabics Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCE Avestan 4 c. CE Palmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE Nabataean 2 c. BCE Arabic 4 c. BCE Orkhon old Turkic 6 c.
CE Old Hungarian c. CE Greek 8 c. BCE Etruscan 8 c. BCE Latin 7 c. BCE Cherokee syllabary; letter forms only c. CE Ogham origin uncertain 4 c. CE Coptic 3 c. CE Gothic 3 c. CE derived from Brahmi numerals.
Northern Brahmic. Southern Brahmic. Main article: Dzongkha keyboard layout. Main article: Tibetan Unicode block. The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, Shakabpa, Tibet: A Political History.
Types of writing systems. History of writing Grapheme. Ideograms and pictograms. Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut. Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs. Arabic Persian Urdu Pakistan. Algerian Braille obsolete. American Braille obsolete. Accessible publishing Braille literacy RoboBraille.
This article contains Tibetan script. Without proper rendering support , you may see very small fonts, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Tibetan characters. History of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs 32 c. The Brahmic script and its descendants.
Tibet je historicke uzemi ve stredni Asii. Z velke casti se rozklada na Tibetske nahorni plosine a jeho prumerna vyska dosahuje priblizne 4 m n. Tradicnim etnikem Tibetu jsou Tibetane hovorici tibetskym jazykem. V minulosti byval Tibet nezavislym kralovstvim, od padesatych let
Seminář pilates a cvičení 5 Tibeťanů