It seems to have been ascribed to him for the first time in the polemics of Ibn Taymiyya d. Taken individually, the two words are among the most discussed in Sufism, philosophy, and kalam theology. Wahda or "oneness" is asserted in tawhid, the first principle of Islamic faith. Wujud —being or existence—is taken by many authors as the preferred designation for God's very reality. All Muslims agree that God's very reality is one. Controversy arises because the word wujud is also employed for the "existence" of things and the world.
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He has since researched and taught on subjects related to tasawwuf ans Islamic Studies in France and Syria. As well as being the author of many journal articles and books, in he edited with Souad Hakim a commentary on a book by Ibn Arabi, the Sharh a-Mashahid al-Qudsiyya. Oneness of Being wahdat al-wujud — The Term and the Doctrine. You should know that there is a difference between these two [i.
Or perhaps the other way round? Or again, should they be posited simultaneously? This is a matter of terminology. The second meaning is not to be found in the Quran. I found in sadness a very intense pain. Also, I found in anger a very intense resentment. I found [acquired] wealth by earning it. In fact, its usage in both areas — Sufism and love poetry — continued. Whenever lovesickness afflicts me, remembering her, my passion wajd is revived, confusion overtakes me.
The use of the word wajd in the poetic tradition has never ceased, even when the poet is not in love. Better for a suffering lover than the pain wajd he feels is a patience that returns the fire to whence it came. Now God has a group of chosen people from amongst His servants… whom He elected for sainthood… they have recourse to none save Him and find no rest except in Him.
He brought them into existence for Himself within the plane of Eternity in Him, and in the vessels of Uniqueness before Him: when He called upon them, they hastened to answer Him, a bountiful act of grace from Him upon them.
He answered them when He brought them into existence… He brought them out as created beings by His Will, and lodged them within the loins of Adam. Junayd goes on to describe, at the end of his K. To me ecstasy is just effort and exertion unless it springs from my witnessing; To me the witness of the Real annihilates witnessing existence. His many discussions of ecstasy emphasize the importance of this fundamental term at the very core of the Sufi mystical experience.
Ecstasy delights whoever finds in ecstasy his rest yet when the Real is found ecstasy is lost My ecstasy kept me longing, but also kept me consoled that with the vision of ecstasy comes He who in ecstasy is to be found.
Then you may be rewarded and I may rest. Sufi ecstatic love is distinguished from ecstasy in love poetry by the force of its intensity, giving rise to a widespread and diversified expression, which is not found in love poems. However, on one thing they are agreed: the total impossibility of finding any definition of love and ecstasy.
He alternates, according to how this state affects him, between weeping, fainting, moaning, loss of consciousness, screaming and shouting. As for weeping and bursting into tears, that increases with the proximity of wajd.
Trembling, loss of consciousness, extinction of bodily senses and the loss of reason, are all caused by the magnifying of that inspiration [i. Thus, according to this, wajd is a psychic agitation that convulses the Sufi and may even cost him his life. It is only through tasting that it is sensed, and to the one who possesses it is unveiled what he desires. Nonetheless, later Sufis did add to these descriptions certain ideas that are worth mentioning. No expression can capture what it is really like.
It spreads itself through the limbs: that which comes upon the hand makes it clap, while that which comes upon the leg makes it dance; that which comes upon the heart makes it cry, whereas that which comes upon the spirit makes it shriek, and that which comes upon the deepest recesses of the secret heart results in loss of consciousness. Thus the heaven of the heart is cooled, causing it to descend, whereby it finds the natural heat ascending to the brain, upon which it relies.
The heat then reverses and takes a downward course until it reaches the surface of the heart. From this friction is generated fire, which then ascends.
That is due to the fact that if the rising fire is unable to come out, it turns back on itself. This is when shouting occurs. The third is finding a station in which the form of finding vanishes by virtue of being drowned in primordiality. There is no ecstasy alongside awareness, no knowledge khubr alongside direct vision.
They possess knowledge of:. The three terms express a Sufi mystical experience, which increases in frequency and strength, and brings the mystic closer to witnessing and certainty. The finding of the Real in ecstasy is diverse among the finders because of the property of the divine names and the engendered preparedness. Hence, the way each possessor of ecstasy finds the Real is in accordance with his ecstasy.
Are reverberations of this address transferred from the taste-finding to the individual being that is established and realized in the outer world? We can find no other explanation, and yet is this the only correct meaning? Our need today to determine and understand the meanings of these terms becomes more urgent whenever we move away from the core mystical experience that spares the mystic the hardship of investigation by providing him with a direct existential experience and an intuitive understanding of it.
The issue becomes even more complex if we wish to broaden our understanding of the doctrine. The only two manuscript copies that remain extant are held in the Leiden Oriental Manuscript Library. He condemns this idea and calls on the reader to go back to the Quranic texts that clearly distinguish between them.
For example, when he says in K. God is exalted above being multiple in His Essence, far transcendent and great beyond that indeed.
To Him belongs absolute Oneness. It is certainly not a materialistic doctrine that limits the discourse to what can be verified by the senses and subjected to experience, and considers God as a name without a real referent.
On the contrary, it is a spiritual doctrine both as a whole and in detail, putting Divinity in the first place of being.
It considers God as the Eternal Reality and the Absolute Necessary Being, which is the origin of all that was, is and will be. We reject the sharp doctrinal separation he makes between a fully constructed philosophical theory and a mystical experience based upon love.
What would you say to someone who says that Being though it is identical with the Necessary and is not subject to fragmentation and division overflows over the forms of existent things and appears in them and that nothing at all is devoid of Him — rather, He is its very reality and essence; and that things became differentiated and multiple by virtue of subjective delimitation [and particularization], and that this can be represented by the ocean and its appearance in the form of multiple waves, even though there is absolutely nothing save the reality of the ocean?
He writes:. What is intended is that Being which subsists in Himself, the Necessary Existent through His own Existence, whose Essence is Himself, and who does not subsist through another. The Existence which subsists in Itself is sheer Being. Rather, the Necessary Existent is a pure Essence subsisting in Itself. The theologians and the Sufis agree on this. The Shaykh should be accepted, but not his disputed expressions. In addition, the Shaykh al-Akbar repeatedly mentions that all that he has written is divinely inspired.
However, this inspiration need not oblige anyone to adopt it as a practice or a new religious injunction.
It is an existential experience that provides the believer who is convinced by it with a determination and sincerity that will assist him in moving forward in seeking closeness to his Creator. However, before doing so, we should make one proviso: there is in fact no Sufi philosophical doctrine to be reconstructed. Abu Al- Rayda, 2nd edn Cairo, , pp. David L. Jambet Paris, , p. He celebrated loving her in his poems, and they are both said to have died of a broken heart. Mahmud Amin Nawawi Cairo, , p.
Nicholson Leiden, , p. Nyberg Leiden, , pp. Chittick, Sufi Path , p. Pablo Beneito and Stephen Hirtenstein Oxford, , p. MS , fol. Badawi, p. Dive straight into the feedback!
Login below and you can start commenting using your own user instantly. Articles and Translations. Recommend by email. Print this article. Bakri Aladdin Bakri Aladdin originates from Damascus; he studied under Henry Corbin in Paris and went on to write his doctoral thesis on the life, works and doctrine of al-Nabulusi, who has been the subject of his three main published works.
Or: Whenever lovesickness afflicts me, remembering her, my passion wajd is revived, confusion overtakes me. They possess knowledge of: the world aside from what is unveiled to them from the secrets of the unseen.
Translated from Arabic by Ramzi Taleb.
DOI Download full text English, 32 pages. Nasution, Ismail F. Wahdatul Wujud or Unity of Being is a sufi doctrine that is in accordance with the well-known, inclusive and permissive views of the people of Nusantara. The teaching has proven to be an important part in realizing the peaceful and harmonious civilization of the Islamic archipelago. Unfortunately when orthodox theology doctrines which nuanced exclusive and radical dominated the Muslim intellectual discourse of archipelago, the doctrine of Wahdatul Wujud become excluded and even terminated from the stage of Islamic intellectualism of archipelago.
We will mainly focus on those aspects of Tasawwuf [Sufism] which are regarded as Shirk and Kufr by the modern Wahhabis 3. I must repeat that all the scholars quoted in this note are highly respected by the Ahle Hadees sect of Indian subcontinent. I witnessed the shining lights on his grave. One wouldn't find an honest person denying the charisma of the place. So do the Wahabis wanna say that one of the biggest scholar of the Ahle Hadees sect was a Mushrik[Polytheist] and a kafir[disbeliever]? Miyan Nadheer Husain would teach Kitab al-Raqa'iq and explain the detailed elements of Tasawwuf [Sufism] and its realities, he would say: 'Dear fellows, what we see here is revival of religious knowledge!