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Abstract: The term industrial park is currently a very frequently used. One of the conditions of their development is a positive trend of capital movement and correct allocation of capital in new conditions of Slovak and world economy.
In current postindustrial stage of development, industrial parks grow in quality in comparison of parks built in the past when all the activities of product building were allocated were concentrated into one single place.
The new generation of industrial parks is characteristic by producing just one product or completion of final goods from components. The present day development in Slovakia confirms that it is necessary to support creation of industrial parks because it has a positive influence to activities supporting research and development and increasing of employment.
A change of the status of economies, caused by globalisation of economies in the world, is and important and prominent feature of current development. The pressure on structural adaptation in the area of production, investment and business is a common feature of global economics development.
On the basis of experience and know-how of the most developed European and world's countries, we can see that creation of capital resources and ways of their use are some of the most crucial and important questions of economical progress sustainability and flueency of structural-adaptation processess in an economy, fundament of which dwells in capital valorization, factor of production mobility, creation of international subjects and development of industrial parks.
In Slovakia, industrial parks represent an opportunity for an influx of foreign investment and decrease of unemployment rate by the means of creation of new jobs. This article focuses on history, fundamentals and the meaning of creation of industrial parks in Europe in theory and practice. The influence of industrial parks on unemployment rate will be shown on the example of Slovakia. The theoretical definition of the term "industrial park" and the historical background of their development.
Industrial parks are one of the most important factors supporting positive economy development. An industrial park is based on a philosophy of integration of relatively different functions production function, and that of services, relaxation and education, too into an industrial area with majority of industrial production and services with high economy turnover and high employment.
It provides services independent of type and importance of a particular industrial park, i. The examples of standard services are finance and law consulting, accounting, security of assets, operation and support of a transportation and technical infrastructure environment or public greenery support.
Non-standard services, provided mainly in parks with country-wide and international importance with higher number of subjects, include logistic services, technology transfer, procurement of research and development services, financial services, banking, agency and leasing of educated workforce, human resource services, food courts and housing, sport, publication of periodicals and different information bulletins about industrial park, organizing of various events, classes and lectures for managerial positions, as well as for employees of companies from park, and", as last but not least, a support of network cooperation between other industrial parks administrators, too.
An industrial park as such is characterized by a united conception, unique and highly particular configuration, selection of production units and overall area maintenance. It is. In Slovak literature, the term "industrial park" is basically very similar to the name of "industrial district", production zone or production cluster. Nonetheless, English economic literature uses terms such as industrial estate, trading estate, factory estate, or employment areas Keppl, An industrial park is defined as an area reserved for industrial development which is usually located close to the transportation environment, mainly in case where more types of transportation are used.
A "light version" of an industrial park is then an "Office Park"; this term is used when the objects described are mainly offices for light industry. The idea of industrial park development was based on several principles which most of all included allocation of specialized infrastructure in selected areas with the aim of decreasing costs connected to building infrastructure, and, furthermore, capability of a country to attract new investors, which would eliminate social and ecological impacts caused by industrial production.
When it comes to industrial parks, we could also mention Burgess' Theory of concentric zones. It was coined by Ernest Burgess1 who elaborated it on the ground of history of Chicago city in the last decade of the 19th century Hoyt, This theory is based on observation of a city development and it demonstrates that a city is built out from center. Burgess evaluates situation at time of community evolution as well as urban evolution, and divides an urban area into five zones: central business district CBD - 1 as the center of urban activity and the main point of urban transportation infrastructures, the transition zone of mixed residential and commercial areas with residential places, zone of factories and working class houses located in less convenient and attractive areas, then a better quality middle-class homes zone with newer and better flats, and finally, an fringe suburban zone Samson, To some extent, Burgess' model of concentric zones is a copy of a model by Homer Hoyt who worked out a theory of wedge or radial sector based on urban field usage.
Though this model affects placing of factories only partially, it succeeds to describe trends of segregation of different social-economy groups and introduces the so called wedge sectors of dominant usage of urban areas. All that was based on a relatively long-term investigation of prices of rent in different urban districts. Usage of land for living, culture and mainly to agriculture and industrial purpose derived from that.
Development of industrial parks must pay attention to one of the basic aims of an economy, that is to allocate both industrial production and services sector in such a way, that progress of a region where a park is built improves.
Incorrect allocation results in an increase of existing differences among various regions, which is verified by regional development theories, be they convergent or divergent. The former ones theories of regional balance , which say that the basic condition of development lies in balancing off diferences among regions, prove that more developed regions accumulate capital faster and better, which leads to decrease in marginal product of capital and thus to lower profits.
Hence, funds flow into regions insufficient with capital and therefore, the yield is even lower. The operating factor of workforce then migrates to more developed. May - December was an urban sociologist at the University of Chicago. Such kind of socilogy takes care about life in cities, structure, processes and problems about urbanism and provides outputs for planning and forming of policies.
Convergence among various regions in terms of production per a citizen then happens thorough the mechanism of converging of differences in production factors Bucek, Kovac, Divergence theories theories of a regional disproportion , on the other hand, consider regional differences to be the necessary and inevitable condition for growth and progress. The main reason for of a disbalanced development is a natural disproportion of economic development among regions, further supported by specialization and concentration Sloboda, The theory of polarized development, presented by J.
Friedman, who brings new term "core - periphery" and justifies its status in development process, is one of divergence theories. According to this theory, level of its autonomy, dependency on other regions and ability of innovation transfer is a significant attribute which distinguishes between regions of core and periphery. In core regions, development brings capital which changes economy structure faster and such regions have influence to periphery regions, which has a positive impact on overall economy growth Friedmann, As written above, on the one hand, economy policy could focus on erasing differences among regions, however, it should not suppress the character of a particular region by illogical and insensitive building an industrial park, followed by allocation of production and services.
Convergence a divergence theories show development of regions in time and have a very strong neoclassic background. Current theories of regional development, which are classified as institutional theories, have their bases in theories elaborated earlier and accentuate the need of supporting creation of mainly small and medium-size companies, supporting transfer of innovation because small and medium size companies are able to quickly react on business needs of market , creating and changing business climate in region.
However, in relation with the transfer of innovation, these have not got enough sources to bring innovation into practice and therefore, their existence depends on big companies. On the other hand, innovation processes in a region are affected by social-economic specialization of regions, by development of industrial parks or research and development laboratories. Industrial parks underwent several steps of development and we can talk about few generations of industrial parks. Typically, the first generation of industrial parks, which were built in the s, can be distinguished from the other generations by assembly halls and storages and a rather simplistic architecture.
The area of administrative buildings took about only 10 to 15 per cent of the total area of the park. In the period between and , industrial parks where offices, which were used by companies dealing with science, technologies and business, occupied much larger space. Characteristic for this second generation industrial parks was a challenging and more complicated architecture. Since the second half of the s, the third generation industrial parks was built; these were typical by elastic use of the area and a wide portfolio of services, as well as by an increase in the number of administrative staff and furthermore, more space was offered to offices focusing on IT.
Administrative buildings and wide portfolio of services was characteristic for fourth generation industral parks which begun to arise from the mids. Companies located in the parks used high-end technologies, storage houses were usually located outside the park itself and there was an increase in the importace of recreational areas connected to the park that were used by people working in them.
Since the second half of the s, industrial parks have been a part of an international network of cooperating parks. The cornerstone of industrial parks can be found in Great Britain, which is a country, where factory production spread and where first industrial zones were founded. These were set up by multiple production units; the first factories arose somewhat accidentally, however, their later occurrence represents an organized deed that followed certain idea of urban planning and regional concept.
The first industrial park, Trafford Park, was established by a company named Shipcanal and Docks near Manchester in Industrial parks, whose emergence was motivated by concepts of regional policies, were being founded in crisis areas of Great Britain in the s; there was 46 of them in The first, pioneering industrial areas were in cities such as Letchworth or Welwyn and we can even found their predecessors - Victorian settlement models such as Bournville, New Earswich and Port Sunlight.
An expansion of new cities was first motivated by a necessity to reconstruct residential buildings and to relieve the over-saturated London agglomeration e. It was also important for location of industries within Great Britain Samson a kol.
Industrial parks in those days varied in both character and size; they ranged from parks, area of which occupied a few acres and which had little or no equipment at all, to huge parks, stretching on the area of a couple of hundreds acres and equipped with technical and social infrastructure built by the park owner.
They had a common feature: the area was planned in advance and individual producers had to follow the plan Keppl, There were acts which were intended to regulate the location of a particular industry to exact districts Acts of , and The act about location of industry, which was passed in , dealt with high unemployment, or with the threat of it, to be more precise, and by financial help to areas affected by unemployment. Such Acts of industry location were nullified by the Local Employment Act from Industrial parks were being established in Germany, too, and the first industrial park was set up in Euro-Industriepark Munchen.
Greater number of industrial park and parks for small and medium size industrial companies emerged no sooner than in the second half of the s and it was basically an initiative of public investors. There were 22 industrial and investment parks in West Germany in Apart from these, private parks were set up as well.
These emerged in densely populated areas, were significantly smaller when it comes to their acreage and focused on different market areas. The region which was abundant with such types of parks was for example the Dussseldorf region 23 completed projects in and the Frankfurt am Mein region 19 completed projects in Their development is still on nowadays. Industrial parks have undoubtedly a positive impact on business in a country where they are located.
They are beneficial in the fact that they apply modern technologies and innovations in production processes, in production of high-end goods, support of innovations and in the fact that they in directly improve research capacity of a particular country.
A country furthermore profits from foreign companies located in the parks, as these bring economic and innovative potential to a country or internationally well-proven know-how, and thus support the process of reconstruction and modernisation of industry and simultaneously, cover the high deficit balance of trade. Another positive aspect of an existence of an industrial park is that it creates conditions for development of small and medium size companies and their cooperation with foreign economic subjects, and therefore, have a positive effect on copetitiveness ability,.
By this, the aim defined by the European Council at Lisbon in - that by , the EU must become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-oriented economy in the world, capable of long-term environmental growth and of creation of more numerous and better working places with higher social cohesion. The idea to create European research area brought forward by Commission in Creation of European Research Area1 is one of the key elements of the Lisbon Strategy.
After the revision of the Lisbon strategy that was carried out in , the Commission proposed a set of steps focused on an increase of efectivity of public support to the research and development and technology innovations, career growth of research stuff, combination of public and private research, improvement of conditions for research and innovations, intellectual property protection, a correct setup of research products and knowledge market regulations, improvements of competitive rules and development of finance markets and fiscal area.
If we consider that the Lisbon strategy is aimed on Europe hopefully becoming the most competitive economy based on knowledge and know-how, industrial parks are one of the possible ways how to reach the interconnection of science and the practice, which implies the necessity of education, specialized preparation and business initiative or employability of a university graduate.
In , the European Commission first stated that creative industries in European Union produce approximately 2. Therefore, from the perspective of economy, it is a very important issue and not a mere amendment to the overall area of employment and economy growth. The influence of industrial parks on overall development of a region is also important. It is obvious that industrial parks cannot be expected to bring immediate results, nonetheless, we can predict that the job opportunities created or transfer of technologies among companies will bring about synergic effects.
A concentration of certain types of companies could bring other investors to the region, which can have effect of necessity of housing and services for new employees. Before we focus on building of industrial parks in Slovakia, it is necessary to say that their development begun in the period of the former Czechoslovakia i. These included predominantly transportation; problems were caused by a slow finishing of the railway network and very high prices of railway transport.
The reconstruction of the until then underdeveloped road network was sped up only in the last years of the existence of Czechoslovakia when reconstruction of power distribution and communication networks was carried out as well. Motivated by the prospect of large government. Because of the military conjucture and application of certain economic measures between and , this industrial tidal wave grew even more intensive.
The following years saw the key industries being concentrated into a single area, that is to the outskirts of a town, where the "owner" of the land understand: the state started to build basic infrastructure: buildings, transportation connections1 and connections to the power network Hallon, , pp.
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Abstract: The term industrial park is currently a very frequently used. One of the conditions of their development is a positive trend of capital movement and correct allocation of capital in new conditions of Slovak and world economy. In current postindustrial stage of development, industrial parks grow in quality in comparison of parks built in the past when all the activities of product building were allocated were concentrated into one single place. The new generation of industrial parks is characteristic by producing just one product or completion of final goods from components.
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