KANEM BORNU EMPIRE PDF

The Kanem-Bornu Empire was a large African state which existed from the 9th century through the end of the 19th century and which spanned a region which today includes the modern-day countries of Niger , Chad , Cameroon , and Nigeria. The empire was founded by the Zaghawa nomadic people, who may have been the first in the central Sudan to acquire and make use of iron technology and horses. The empire was first mentioned by Arab chroniclers in the 9th century, and by the 10th century the ruler of Kanem had control of the Kawar Oases, a vital economic asset. The political structure of the Kanem empire had most likely grown out of rival states coming under the control of the Zaghawa. In the 11th century the Zaghawa clans were driven out by Humai ibn Salamna, who founded the kingdom of Kanem with a capital at Njimi. The Saifwa dynasty was established, a dynasty which ruled for years—the longest known reign in history.

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Kanem-Bornu , African trading empire ruled by the Sef Sayf dynasty that controlled the area around Lake Chad from the 9th to the 19th century. Its territory at various times included what is now southern Chad , northern Cameroon , northeastern Nigeria , eastern Niger , and southern Libya. Kanem-Bornu was probably founded around the mid-9th century, and its first capital was at Njimi, northeast of Lake Chad. Because of its location, it served as a point of contact in trade between North Africa , the Nile Valley, and the sub-Sahara region.

In the late 14th century the Bulala people forced the Sef to abandon Kanem, and the capital was moved to Birni Ngazargamu in Bornu , west of Lake Chad. It remained there even after Kanem was retaken in the early 16th century. The Sef dynasty died out in Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. The history of Borno antedates the 9th century, when Arabic writers in North Africa first noted the kingdom of Kanem, east of Lake Chad Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.

Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The history of Borno antedates the 9th century, when Arabic writers in North Africa first noted the kingdom of Kanem, east of Lake Chad. The lake was then much larger than the present-day body of water, and its basin attracted settlements and encouraged exchange.

By the forces of Fulani rebellion and invasion had reduced its ancient monarchy to impotence. The Muslim sources, which are broadly confirmed by local tradition, indicate that the kingdom of Kanem was being formed during the 9th and….

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Kanem–Bornu Empire

It was known to the Arabian geographers as the Kanem Empire from the 8th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu the Bornu Empire until The Kanem Empire c. The Bornu Empire s— was a state in what is now northeastern Nigeria, in time becoming even larger than Kanem, incorporating areas that are today parts of Chad, Niger, Sudan, and Cameroon. The early history of the Empire is mainly known from the Royal Chronicle or Girgam discovered in by the German traveller Heinrich Barth.

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Kanem-Bornu

Kanem-Bornu , African trading empire ruled by the Sef Sayf dynasty that controlled the area around Lake Chad from the 9th to the 19th century. Its territory at various times included what is now southern Chad , northern Cameroon , northeastern Nigeria , eastern Niger , and southern Libya. Kanem-Bornu was probably founded around the mid-9th century, and its first capital was at Njimi, northeast of Lake Chad. Because of its location, it served as a point of contact in trade between North Africa , the Nile Valley, and the sub-Sahara region. In the late 14th century the Bulala people forced the Sef to abandon Kanem, and the capital was moved to Birni Ngazargamu in Bornu , west of Lake Chad.

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Empire of Kanem-Bornu (ca. 9th century-1900)

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