CAUSES OF NGONI MIGRATION PDF

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Design themes for creatives and lifestyle bloggers. Post a comment. News Loading Popular Posts. Home About Contact. Latest News. Recent Comments. About Author. Your Direction Leads you to New Destination. Powered by Blogger. Featured Posts. Post Top Ad. Search This Blog. Post Bottom Ad. Recent Posts. Breaking News. Edit This Menu. Social Media Icons facebook. Random Posts. Recent in Sports. Header Ads. About Me Sixtz bogger View my complete profile. Pages Home. The Ngoni Migration into East Africa - The displacement of the Ngoni people in the great scattering following the Zulu wars had repercussions in social reorganization as far north as Malawi and Zambia.

Around , the Mthethwa alliance, which included the Zulu clan, came into conflict with the Ndwandwe alliance, which included the Nguni people from the kwaZulu-Natal. One of the military commanders of the Ndwandwe army, Zwangendaba Gumbi c— , was the head of the Jele or Gumbi clan, which itself formed part of the larger emaNcwangeni alliance in what is now north-east kwaZulu-Natal.

The battle resulted in the diaspora of many indigenous groups in southern Africa. Reasons forthe Ngoni Migration Ngoni Cul ture. The Ngoni migration was primarily caused by Shaka's expansionist wars. He had embarked on an a vigorous policy of expanding his empire at the expense of his neighbors. He created a period of wars Mfecane that forced many people to migrate and find new areas for settlement.

The Ngoni found themselves moving northwards into East Africa. They may have also migrated because of population pressure. The growth in Ngoni population may have therefore forced them to move northwards into East Africa.. Internal conflicts may have been a cause for the Ngoni migration. These may have been clan or land conflicts that made their stay in South Africa unbearable. There were also civil wars in Zulu land. Since they were farmers, the Ngoni may have migrated as a result of land pressure.

They may have been looking for fertile lands that could support agriculture. Their migration may have also been a result of the influence of good leaders like Zwangendaba who did not want his people to be subjugated by Shaka. Other leaders included Chief Maputo and Zulu Gama. These organized war against the Ngoni enemies. Diseases like small pox, malaria and sleeping sickness are also assumed to have been the reason behind the Ngoni migration.

Love for adventure may have also forced the Ngoni to migrate especially the youth who wanted explore the lands north of River Limpopo. This is perhaps what forced them to move northwards into East Africa. This long journey by the Boers is historically known as "the great trek". All young men had to undergo training in order to become good fighters.

Being pastoralists, the Ngoni might have migrated into East Africa looking for pastures and water for their animals. Since they were a warrior and pastoral society, the Ngoni migrated to East Africa to loot and increase on their herds. The hostile climate also forced the Ngoni to move northwards. Severe famine might also have hit their area forcing them to look for areas that could give them food.

Note; the most important of these factors was the need to escape Shaka's tyranny. The Ngoni Migration and Settlement Course. There were several waves of migration from South Africa but two groups came to East Africa around the s.

Each group took a different direction. The first and biggest group was led by Nduna chief Zwangendaba. These moved through Central Africa, destroying the settled Shona communities in They crossed River Zambezi on 19th November solar eclipse day , travelled through Malawi and finally settled around Ufipa Fipa plateau in This was after destroying the small disorganized Fipa communities.

The Ngoni settled around Fipa because the soils were fertile and the people were easy to conquer. However, around , Zwangendaba died. Without his strong leadership his group split into five small groups.

Three of these went back to Central Africa, settling in present day Malawi and Zambia. The remaining two groups decided to remain permanently in Tanzania, These were the Tuta and Gwangwara Ngoni.

The Tuta Ngoni moved north wards into the land of the Holoholo on the Eastern shores of Lake Tanganyika but were driven out, forcing them to change course and settle in North-eastern Tanzania among the Nyamwezi around ls.

This group took the young Mirambo captive in Bugomba and disrupted trade caravans between Tabora and Ujiji. The Gwangara group too, under Zulu Gama decided to leave Fipa and moved eastwards, destroying Hehe and Sangu settlements. Meanwhile the second and smaller group led by Maputo had reached East Africa travelling up the Eastern side of Lake Nyasa until they reached Songea around At Songea the Ngoni absorbed and intermarried with local inhabitants they found there - the Yao.

By , the Gwangwara had reached Songea where they clashed with the Maseko Ngoni defeating them and forcing them to flee. The defeated Maseko split into two groups. The other group fled northwards to Morogoro and these came to be the Mbuga Ngoni and others scattered to Tunduru, Masaai and Newale.

From Songea, this Gwangara group raided the land between Lake Malawi and the coast, creating a period of instability, uncertainty and chaos. Reasons for the Success of the Ngoni Migration. Ithe Ngoni managed to defeat the societies they met with relative ease because;. During their movement they always captured young men and women. The young men served as warriors and women as wives. This meant that the Ngoni always had a large force compared to their enemies.

The Ngoni had an outstanding military organization inherited from Shaka. They divided their army into fighting units called impis. They also had a strong standing army that was always ready to crush the enemy. They also had an age set system as the basis of their military regiments.

They were also equipped with superior weapons compared to the people they met. Such weapons included the Assegai short stabbing spear and large cow-hide shields. They had good military tactics of attacking their enemies like the cow - horn tactic which enabled them to encircle their enemies easily. They also preferred fighting in the open and barefooted which facilitated easy mobility.

They also carefully planned each battle. Most of the Ngoni enemies were weak and small societies that were organized on a clan basis and therefore could not challenge the military might of the Ngoni.

These societies were also disuniting and often at war with each other. Societies that could have resisted the Ngoni invasion were always attacked unprepared. This was because the Ngoni used surprise attacks. The Ngoni always used the scorched earth policy on those that tried to resist them, e. This kind of severe treatment scared small societies forcing them to flee on seeing them.

Unlike other tribes, the Ngoni fighters were professionally trained and free of any work. This meant that their entire lives were dedicated to fighting.

The Ngoni had great experience in large scale warfare which many of the interior tribes lacked. The many wars they had fought gave them immunity to small bloodshed. The Ngoni commanders kept the morale of the army high by promising them rewards after victory hence making them work harder.

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THE NGONI MIGRATIONS AND SETTLEMENT IN EAST AFRICA

In twenty years they travelled over a thousand miles. This means the "great scattering". Not much was written about the Mfecane. What we know is from the diaries of missionaries and travellers from Europe, and from the stories passed down from generation to generation.

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Ngoni Migration - History of Ngoni tribe

The Ngoni migrated due to the tyrannical and dictatorial rule of Shaka, the Zulu ruler who was everything in his kingdom. His cruelty was shown when he lost his mother, and put people under severe signs of mourning. They moved because of external pressure from the British and the Boers in the South who were moving northwards occupying their land. It was due to over population, which was caused by the fertility of soils and reliability of rainfall between Drakensberg Mountains and the Indian Ocean.

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