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The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished c. Most researchers associate the Andronovo horizon with early Indo-Iranian languages , though it may have overlapped the early Uralic -speaking area at its northern fringe.
According to genetic study conducted by Allentoft et al. Several graves were discovered, with skeletons in crouched positions, buried with richly decorated pottery. The Andronovo culture was first identified by the Russian archaeologist Sergei Teploukhov in the s.
At least four sub-cultures of the Andronovo horizon have been distinguished, during which the culture expands towards the south and the east:. Some authors have challenged the chronology and model of eastward spread due to increasing evidence for the earlier presence of these cultural features in parts of east Central Asia. The geographical extent of the culture is vast and difficult to delineate exactly. On its western fringes, it overlaps with the approximately contemporaneous, but distinct, Srubna culture in the Volga - Ural interfluvial.
To the east, it reaches into the Minusinsk depression, with some sites as far west as the southern Ural Mountains ,  overlapping with the area of the earlier Afanasevo culture. The northern boundary vaguely corresponds to the beginning of the Taiga.
Mallory notes that the Tazabagyab culture south of Andronovo could be an offshoot of the former or Srubna , alternatively the result of an amalgamation of steppe cultures and the Central Asian oasis cultures Bishkent culture and Vaksh culture.
In the initial Sintastha- Petrovka phase, [ clarification needed ] the Andronovo culture is limited to the northern and western steppes in the southern Urals -Kazakhstan. On its western border, it is roughly contemporaneous with the Srubna culture , which partly derives from the Abashevo culture.
Both Herodotus and Strabo identify them as Iranian. The Andronovo culture consisted of both communities that were largely mobile as well as those settled in small villages. Settlements are especially pronounced in its Central Asian parts. Fortifications include ditches, earthen banks as well as timber palisades, of which an estimated twenty have been discovered.
Andronovo villages typically contain around two to twenty houses, but settlements containing as much as a hundred houses have been discovered.
Andronovo houses were generally constructed from pine , cedar , or birch , and were usually aligned overlooking the banks of rivers. Larger homes range in the size from 80 to sqm, and probably belonged to extended families, a typical feature among early Indo-Iranians. Andronovo livestock included cattle , horses , sheep , goats and camels. The percentage of cattle among Andronovo remains are significantly higher than among their western Srubna neighbours.
The Andronovo dead were buried in timber or stone chambers under both round and rectangular kurgans tumuli. Burials were accompanied by livestock, wheeled vehicles, cheek-pieces for horses, and weapons, ceramics and ornaments. Among the most notable remains are the burials of chariots, dating from around BC and possibly earlier. The chariots are found with paired horse-teams, and the ritual burial of the horse in a "head and hooves" cult has also been found. At Kytmanovo in Russia between Mongolia and Kazakhstan, dated — BC, a strain of Yersinia pestis was extracted from a dead woman's tooth in a grave common to her and to two children.
However, by contrast with other prehistoric Yersinia pestis bacteria, the strain does so weakly; later, historic plague does not express flagellin at all, accounting for its virulence. The Kytmanovo strain was therefore under selection toward becoming a plague  although it was not the plague. Soma may have originated in the Andronovo culture. It is almost universally agreed among scholars that the Andronovo culture was Indo-Iranian;   it is furthermore credited with the invention of the spoke-wheeled chariot around BC.
Sintashta on the upper Ural River , noted for its chariot burials and kurgans containing horse burials, is considered the type site of the Sintashta culture , forming one of the earliest parts of the "Andronovo horizon".
Comparisons between the archaeological evidence of the Andronovo and textual evidence of Indo-Iranians i. The modern explanations for the Indo-Iranianization of Greater Iran and the Indian subcontinent rely heavily on the supposition that the Andronovo expanded southwards into Central Asia or at least achieved linguistic dominance across the Bronze Age urban centres of the region, such as the Bactria—Margiana Archaeological Complex.
While the earliest phases of the Andronovo culture are regarded as co-ordinate with the late period of Indo-Iranian linguistic unity, it is likely that in the later period they constituted a branch of the Iranians. According to Hiebert, an expansion of the BMAC into Iran and the margin of the Indus Valley is "the best candidate for an archaeological correlate of the introduction of Indo-Iranian speakers to Iran and South Asia,"  despite the absence of the characteristic timber graves of the steppe in the Near East,  or south of the region between Kopet Dagh and Pamir - Karakorum.
He has developed the Kulturkugel model that has the Indo-Iranians taking over Bactria-Margiana cultural traits but preserving their language and religion while moving into Iran and India. Klejn and Brentjes found the Andronovo culture much too late for an Indo-Iranian identification since chariot-using Aryans appear in Mitanni by the 15th century BC.
Eugene Helimski has suggested that the Andronovo people spoke a separate branch of the Indo-Iranian group of languages. He claims that borrowings in the Finno-Ugric languages support this view. Since older forms of Indo-Iranian words have been taken over in Uralic and Proto- Yeniseian , occupation by some other languages also lost ones cannot be ruled out altogether, at least for part of the Andronovo area, i. The Andronovo have been described by archaeologists as exhibiting pronounced Caucasoid features.
Archaeological investigations likewise suggest that in the steppe region of Central Asia and the Altai Mountains , the first food production began towards the end of the third millennium BC and that the peoples who first entered this region were Caucasoid of the Afanasevo culture who came from the Aral Sea area Kelteminar culture.
Physical remains of the Andronovo has revealed that they were Europoids with dolichocephalic skulls. Andronovo skulls are very similar to those of the preceding Fatyanovo—Balanovo culture , Abashevo culture and Sintashta culture , and the contemporary Srubnaya culture.
They differ slighly from the skulls of the Yamnaya culture , Poltavka culture , Catacomb culture and Potapovka culture, which although being of a similar robust Europoid type, are less dolichocephalic. The physical type of Abashevo, Sintashta, Andronovo and Srubnaya is later observed among the Scythians. In , a genetic study of ancient Siberian cultures, the Andronovo culture, the Karasuk culture , the Tagar culture and the Tashtyk culture , was published in Human Genetics.
Extractions of Y-DNA from one individual was determined to belong to Y-DNA haplogroup C but not C3 , while the other two extractions were determined to belong to haplogroup R1a1a , which is thought to mark the eastward migration of the early Indo-Europeans.
In June study published in Nature , one male and three female individuals of Andronovo culture were surveyed. The Corded Ware peoples were in turn found to be closely genetically related to the Beaker culture , the Unetice culture and particularly the peoples of the Nordic Bronze Age.
A genetic study published in Nature in May examined the remains of an Andronovo female buried ca. She was found to be a carrier of the maternal haplogroup U2e1h. In a genetic study published in Science in September , a large number of remains from the Andronovo horizon was examined. The majority of mtDNA samples extracted belonged to U , although other haplogroups also occurred. The people of the Andronovo culture were found to be closely genetically related to the people of the Corded Ware culture , the Potapovka culture , the Sintashta culture and Srubnaya culture.
These were found to harbor mixed ancestry from the Yamnaya culture and peoples of the Central European Middle Neolithic. The genetic data suggested that the Andronovo culture and its Sintastha predecessor were ultimately derived of a remigration of Central European peoples with steppe ancestry back into the steppe.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Peoples and societies. Religion and mythology. Indo-European studies. Scholars Marija Gimbutas J. Part of a series on the. Main article: Indo-Iranians.
During the period of the Timber-grave culture the population of the Ukraine was represented by the medium type between the dolichocephalous narrow-faced population of the Multi-roller Ware culture Babino and the more massive broad-faced population of the Timber-grave culture of the Volga region The anthropological data confirm the existence of an impetus from the Volga region to the Ukraine in the formation of the Timber-grave culture.
During the Belozerka stage the dolichocranial narrow-faced type became the prevalent one. A close affinity among the skulls of the Timber-grave, Belozerka, and Scythian cultures of the Pontic steppes, on the one hand, and of the same cultures of the forest-steppe region, on the other, has been shown This proves the genetical continuity between the Iranian-speeking Scythian population and the previous Timber-grave culture population in the Ukraine Its population possessed distinct Europoid features, was tall, with massive skulls The tribes of the Abashevo culture appear in the forest-steppe zone, almost simultaneously with the Poltavka culture.
The Abashevans are marked by dolichocephaly and narrow faces. One type was massive, and its predecessor was the Pit-grave-Poltavka type. The second type was a dolichocephalous Europoid type genetically related to the Sintashta population One more participant of the ethno-cultural processes in the steppes was that of the tribes of the Pokrovskiy type.
They were dolichocephalous narrow-faced Europoids akin to the Abashevans and different from the Potapovkans The majority of Timber-grave culture skulls are dolichocranic with middle-broad faces. They evidence the significant role of Pit-grave and Poltavka components in the Timber-grave culture population This conclusion is confirmed by the evidence of Indo-Iranian tradition. The Aryans in the Avesta are tall, light-skinned people with light hair; their women were light-eyed, with long, light tresses The close affinity we observe between peoples of Corded Ware and Sintashta cultures suggests similar genetic sources of the two The Andronovo culture, which arose in Central Asia during the later Bronze Age, is genetically closely related to the Sintashta peoples, and clearly distinct from both Yamnaya and Afanasievo.
Therefore, Andronovo represents a temporal and geographical extension of the Sintashta gene pool This is consistent with previous findings showing that following westward movement of eastern European populations and mixture with local European agriculturalists, there was an eastward reflux back beyond the Urals.
Princeton University Press. Bibcode : Natur. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams eds. Press, p. Retrieved March 2, CS1 maint: uses authors parameter link , S This sample is marked "RISE". Human Genetics. Retrieved 16 September In: Finnisch-ugrische Sprachen in Kontakt. Maastricht , pp. Bibcode : PLoSO
Andronovo Culture (c. 1800-1400 BCE)
The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished c. Most researchers associate the Andronovo horizon with early Indo-Iranian languages , though it may have overlapped the early Uralic -speaking area at its northern fringe. According to genetic study conducted by Allentoft et al. Several graves were discovered, with skeletons in crouched positions, buried with richly decorated pottery. The Andronovo culture was first identified by the Russian archaeologist Sergei Teploukhov in the s.
Chapter One. History of research on the Andronovo culture
Nehring and anthropologist Carleton S. Geneticists are now generally decidedly agreed that the time frame of the Andronovo culture cannot be equated with the Indo-Iranians since the Central Asian influence on South Asian populations long predated any development of Iranian or Indo-Aryan languages. The earliest of the Andronovo cultures is closely related to, if not identical with, the Sintashta-Arkhaim culture, dated to the first centuries of the second millennium BC. The field of Indo-European Studies has been heavily influenced by pseudoscientific theories often referred to as Eurocentrism or Indo-Europeanism. Such theories contend that Indo-European history stretches back to early Neolithic times, and that every major civilization in history is of Indo-European origin.