Trees 0. Twigs are white. The alternate Leaves are bipinnate. Leaflets with diagonal midrib.
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The bark, leaves, and roots of Albizia adianthifolia are highly sought after in tropical Africa as herbal medicines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of A.
Information on the botanical profile, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of A. Preelectronic literature search of conference papers, scientific articles, books, book chapters, dissertations, and theses was carried out at the University library. Literature search revealed that A. Phytochemical compounds identified from the species include apocarotenoids, chalcone, dipeptide, elliptosides, essential oils, fatty acids, flavonoids, histamine, imidazolyl carboxylic acid, prosapogenins, steroids, triterpene saponins, and triterpenoids.
Pharmacological studies revealed that A. Detailed studies on the pharmacokinetics, in vivo , and clinical research involving compounds isolated from A. Albizia adianthifolia Schumach. Wight is a medium to large tree Figure 1 which belongs to the plant family Fabaceae and subfamily Mimosoideae. The species is a member of Albizia Durazz. Albizia species have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cough, diarrhoea, insomnia, irritability, rheumatism, stomach ache, tuberculosis, and wounds [ 2 ].
Phytochemical studies done on different species of Albizia lead to the isolation of different classes of secondary metabolites, such as saponins, terpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids [ 2 , 3 ]. The saponin compounds isolated from the genus Albizia have been reported to possess cancer related activities and other pharmacological properties which include analgesic, anthelmintic, antidysenteric, antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antiseptic, antispermatogenic, antitumour, anxiolytic, cytotoxic, immunomodulatory, nootropic, and apoptosis inducing properties [ 3 ].
According to Louppe et al. It is, therefore, not surprising that A. Research by Mander [ 6 ] showed that A. Similarly, Williams et al. According to Williams et al. About kg to kg of A. Overcollection of A.
It is within this context that the current study was carried out aimed at reviewing the botany, medicinal uses, phytochemical, and pharmacological properties of A. Search for information relevant to the botany, medicinal uses, phytochemical, and pharmacological properties of A. Preelectronic literature of conference papers, scientific articles, books, book chapters, dissertations, and theses were carried out at the University of Fort Hare library.
Durand, Inga fastigiata E. Publications included in this study were published between and , including 60 articles published in international journals, books 13 , conference, working papers and other scientific publications eight , book chapters three , dissertation, and website one each.
Three of the research articles were published before , while four were published between and , and seven articles , and 10 , and 32 , and and 30 articles. Albizia is a large genus comprising about to species that are widely distributed in tropical Africa including Madagascar , central South America, south east Asia, and Malaysia [ 14 ].
The genus name Albizia was first published by Durazzini in based on a description of A. Literature studies revealed the existence of two accepted infraspecifics, A. Durand Villiers [ 19 , 20 ], and no attempt has been made to provide infraspecific circumscription and geographical distribution of the two varieties. Therefore, A. Synonyms of A. Albizia adianthifolia is a medium to large deciduous tree growing up to 35 m in height [ 16 , 21 ]. The bark is yellowish brown to grey, smooth or rough, inner bark granular, creamy to yellowish in colour with clear gum.
Albizia adianthifolia has a flattened crown, with large, spreading branches, young branches densely yellowish or reddish pubescent. Leaves are alternate, bipinnately compound with 3 to 10 pairs of pinnae with ovate to lanceolate stipules and leaflets in 5 to 17 pairs per pinna [ 16 , 21 ]. The inflorescence is an axillary head with bisexual small flowers which are reddish to greenish white in colour.
The fruit is an oblong, flat pod, densely but finely pubescent, transversely veined, and pale brown when ripe. The seeds are flattened, swollen, globose in shape and brown in colour [ 21 ].
Albizia adianthifolia has been recorded in forests, woodlands, and areas that are transitional to woodland. The bark of A. This study showed that dried bark of A. Krauss family Euphorbiaceae , other three plant species sold as herbal medicines in the informal herbal medicine markets in South Africa. Grace et al. The bark, leaf sap, leaves, roots, and stem bark of A.
Major diseases and ailments recorded in at least two countries include diabetes, eye problems, gastrointestinal problems, haemorrhoids, headache, neurodegenerative disorders, purgative, reproductive problems in women, respiratory problems, wounds and pain, skin diseases, sexually transmitted infections, and ethnoveterinary medicine Figure 3. Albizia adianthifolia is used to manage and treat top three ailments and diseases regarded by the World Health Organization [ 24 ] as the leading causes of death in low-income countries, and these are lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, and ischaemic heart disease.
The bark, leaves, and stem bark of A. The bark, leaves, and roots of A. The leaves of A. There is, therefore, a need for further research aimed at correlating some of the ethnomedicinal uses of A. Moreover, the World Health Organization has recognized the important role played by traditional medicines in the provision of primary healthcare in the resource-poor regions like tropical and subtropical Africa [ 38 ].
In addition to this, several studies have demonstrated the efficacy and importance of medicinal plants in the development of new pharmaceutical drugs and health products [ 39 , 40 ]. Sexually transmitted infections are treated with multitherapeutic applications involving A. For example, in Sierra Leone, stem bark of A. Swingle and taken orally as herbal medicine for gonorrhoea [ 41 ]. In South Africa, the leaves of A.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, leaves of A. To date, about 90 secondary metabolites have been isolated from the heartwood, leaves, roots, root, and stem bark of A. The isolated phytochemical compounds which included apocarotenoids, dipeptide, elliptosides, essential oils, fatty acids, flavonoids, histamines, imidazolyl carboxylic acids, steroids, triterpene saponins, and triterpenoids were identified and characterized using fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy FABMS , gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS , high performance liquid chromatography HPLC , high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectroscopy HRESIMS , and nuclear magnetic resonance NMR techniques Table 2.
The essential oils, fatty acids, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, and phenolics are considered the most prominent family of phytochemical compounds occurring in A. Research by Akande et al. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of n-hexane heartwood extract of A. Candy et al.
Beppe et al. Roques et al. Further comprehensive studies focusing on chemical constituents of A. Over the years, pharmacological studies on A. Risa et al. Eldeen et al. Sonibare et al. All extracts showed activities with IC 50 values ranging from The ability of A. McGaw et al. Akande et al. The time of paralysis and death of Eudrilus eugeniae worms decreased as concentration was increased.
The leaf essential oil showed the best activity with time of paralysis and death at Van Puyvelde et al. The extracts showed activities against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis with zone of inhibition ranging from 10 mm to 12 mm [ 53 ]. Ethanol bark extracts were active against all tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration MIC values ranging from 3. Abubakar and Majinda [ 68 ] evaluated antibacterial activities of chloroform and n-hexane extracts of heartwood of A.
Tchinda et al. Tamokou et al. The ethyl acetate extract and aurantiamide acetate 9 were active against all the tested pathogens with MIC values ranging from 0.
The compound lupeol 86 , a mixture of n-hexadecanoic acid and oleic acid 68 , and a mixture of compounds docosanoic acid 65, n-hexadecanoic acid 66, and octadecanoic acid 67 were active against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Shigella flexneri with MIC values ranging from 0.
The exhibited minimum bactericidal concentrations MBC were 0. The documented antibacterial activities exhibited by different extracts and compounds isolated from A. Eldeen and Van Staden [ 76 ] evaluated the antimycobacterial activities of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol bark and leaf extracts of A.
Only the ethanol root extract exhibited moderate activity with MIC value of 6. These findings show potential of A. Naidoo et al. The anti-sexually transmitted infections interaction of A. The extracts exhibited activities with MIC values ranging from 0. The combination of A. Abubakar and Majinda [ 68 ] evaluated antifungal activities of chloroform and n-hexane extracts of heartwood of A.
Similarly, Tamokou et al. The compound lupeol 86 was active against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae, Candida krusei, and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC values ranging from 0.
A mixture of n-hexadecanoic acid 66 and oleic acid 68 , and a mixture of docosanoic acid 65, n-hexadecanoic acid 66, and octadecanoic acid 67 were active against Candida albicans, Candida lusitaniae, Candida tropicalis, and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC values ranging from 0.
Albizia adianthifolia Schumach. Albizia adianthifolia is widespread, occurring from Senegal east to Kenya, and south to Angola, eastern South Africa and Swaziland; also in eastern Madagascar. The wood of Albizia adianthifolia is used for light construction e. It is also suitable for light flooring, joinery, interior trim, furniture, cabinet work, boat building, vehicle bodies, toys and novelties, tool handles, baseball bats, boxes, crates, hardboard and particle board. The wood is used as firewood, although it burns quickly; it is also made into charcoal. Albizia adianthifolia is locally valued as a shade tree for crops, e.
Albizia adianthifolia var. adianthifolia
Albizia adianthifolia is a tree in the family Fabaceae. It is commonly known as the flat-crown. Its range extends from eastern South Africa to Tropical Africa. In South Africa it is found in coastal lowland forests. Albizia adianthifolia is cultivated as an ornamental tree. The attractive habit of these trees makes them a popular garden tree, often being retained as a native plant in suburban gardens when other indigenous vegetation is removed. Elephants browse the leaves of these trees and blue duiker favour the leaves and seedpods as food.
The bark, leaves, and roots of Albizia adianthifolia are highly sought after in tropical Africa as herbal medicines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the botany, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of A. Information on the botanical profile, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of A. Preelectronic literature search of conference papers, scientific articles, books, book chapters, dissertations, and theses was carried out at the University library. Literature search revealed that A.